有机高架床土壤:成功的基础

For first-time gardeners, one of the most confusing things to deal with is getting the right 泥 mix. 那里 are so many options out there, all of them claiming to be the best 要么 ganic raised bed 泥. Some bagged mixes are quite good, and they’通常,对于新园丁来说,这是一个不错的起点。

但是土壤科学只不过是打开一个袋子,并从中获得了奇迹般健康的植物。您的花园土壤是各种组成部分的生活和呼吸的混合物。在自然环境中,土壤是由许多层组成的,有些是无机的,例如磨碎的岩石,有些是有机的,例如腐烂的叶子。微生物,真菌等也生活在其中。它们共同构成了我们种植植物的基础。

When you take the 泥 from its natural setting and put it in a raised bed, there are different goals that should be met. Raised bed 泥 warms up more rapidly in the spring, often needs better drainage than other forms of 泥s, and can reduce in height as material decays and turns to plant nutrients.

所以让’s go over raised bed mixes, what they are, how they work, and what you should do to keep them alive and healthy. Healthy 泥 makes for healthy plants, so it’正确开始至关重要!

建造良好土壤的有用工具:

什么 Is Soil, Anyway?

期限“soil” is misused often, but in essence, it should refer to what we often call dirt. The average garden 泥 in your yard is usually at least 45% mineral content, roughly 25% each of air and water, and about 5% 要么 ganic material like decayed leaves. These numbers vary a bit depending on region and 泥 quality, but that’s an average for what is considered good 泥.

While the mineral content varies in type, 泥 types are 要么 ganized most often by their particulate size. The largest particle size is what we refer to as 。最好的是 粘土。两者之间是 淤泥.

Each type of 泥 has different properties. Clay tends to stick together and can become rock-hard when baked in the sun. Sand is loose, but its large particle size means it doesn’保持尽可能多的水。淤泥很滑,容易被侵蚀。

这三种类型的混合物称为壤土,但如果它占任何类型土壤的主要成分,则将其添加到名称中。例如,沙质壤土将是相对均匀的矿物尺寸混合物,向沙质侧略倾斜。壤土以砂土为主,但也掺入了一些壤土。这些术语帮助我们确定土壤的平均粒径,但也可以确定土壤的一些最常见属性。

什么’s土壤和混合物之间的区别?

东西卖了“potting 泥” is almost always a mix. It may 要么 may not actually contain any 泥 at all, in fact! A better term for it would be “potting mix”, and some sellers use that term instead of including the word 泥.

什么 we want for most raised beds is usually a 泥 blend. A 泥 blend includes the mineral-rich dirt along with other 要么 ganic ingredients, thus boosting the rich 要么 ganic matter that plants need to thrive.

您是否总是需要混合?

“需要”是一个相当强烈的用词,但从技术上讲,您不会’无需用完并购买任何种类的混合物。您可以使用自己的堆肥,院子里的老叶子或其他任意数量的原料在家中制作一个。但是要开始新的加高床,’s a good idea to use a mix as at least part of your initial 要么 ganic 泥 blend.

根据高架床的大小,您也许可以购买袋装混合物以填满它。或者,许多景观供应公司批量出售自己的混合物。两种选择都可以很好地帮助您入门。

总是需要土壤吗?

For container growing, 泥 is not always required. Many plants are perfectly happy in a 盆栽混合 blend that is optimized to their specific needs. But often, 砂 is used as an additive to bags of mix as it provides better drainage due to its large particle size, so you may actually have a small amount of 泥 even when you don’t think you do.

As a general rule, raised beds use at least some 泥 to ensure good drainage capability, but also to fill it. As garden beds can take a surprising amount of fill material, using some 泥 along with other components can reduce the cost to fill your raised bed significantly.

什么 Goes Into Raised Bed Soil?

有机高架床土

各种袋装混合物都有不同成分的专有混合物。为了提供我们真正喜欢的示例,Espoma’用于高架床花园的有机混合物的标签上包含以下成分:55%-65%的老林产品,泥炭藓,珍珠岩,石灰石,苜蓿粉,海带粉,羽毛粉,蠕虫铸件和丝兰提取物就像一些菌根的生活。从技术上讲,它是用于大容器或高架床的无土花园介质。如果您要从袋装预混料中选择直接混料,则效果很好。

但是所有这些成分都是什么,它们是做什么的?让’我们将详细讨论。

曝气和与水分有关的添加剂

可以肯定的是,植物需要水分,但水分不要太多。排水需求因植物类型而异,但大多数常见的园林植物都喜欢土壤中的多余水分以自由排出。如果你’从通常年复一年地压实的花园土壤开始,增加通气也是必要的。就像植物在根部需要水一样,它们也需要空气!

珍珠岩 is a common additive used for both aspects. This expanded volcanic rock is extremely lightweight and easy to work with, and it reduces 泥 compaction a bit as well. Because it is much larger in particle size, it allows for airflow through the 泥, but also for drainage.

两种类型都使用了多种添加剂,但是有些是专门针对水分或排水的。这里’s是最常用的添加物的简短摘要,这些添加物用于改善通气或排水和保持/吸收水分。

  • 珍珠岩: 改善排水效果,重量轻,可吸收少量水。
  • 稻壳: 排水会最终分解。极其轻巧。
  • 熔岩煤渣: These are fine pieces of volcanic rock that improve aeration and drainage while catching small amounts of water. Unlike perlite, this will not eventually get crushed by 泥 weight.
  • 林龄产品: 这些不仅可以改善排水,而且可以吸收水以备后用。老年人已经部分分解,这意味着他们赢了’不要从高架的花园床上抢走营养。
  • 椰子椰丝: This lightweight material absorbs water for later plant use, but excess drains easily away. It also loosens the 泥 and will eventually decompose.
  • 泥炭藓: 尽管最初很难将其弄湿,因为干泥炭可能是疏水性的,但一旦弄湿,它将长时间保持水分。保持湿润’是一个了不起的补充。
  • 蠕虫铸件: 蠕虫铸件能够吸收其重量近10倍的水,非常适合保留水分。
  • : This mineral absorbs water like a sponge. Over time it releases moisture to the 泥.
  • 粗秸秆/干草: 更常用作覆盖物。较大的尺寸使其可用于充气目的,另外它还会吸收一些水。它迅速分解。

生育助剂

While the various components mentioned above are fantastic for regulating water and improving airflow through the 泥, only a few of them provide any nutrient value. And 泥 needs not only fertility for the plants, but for the microbiology that lives within it.

那里’可以添加多种材料来提高高架床花园的肥力。让’还要查看这些列表。

  • 植物堆肥: 不管你怎么’re composting, you’ll find that you always have a need for more compost. It enriches the 泥 as it breaks down and improves the texture and tilth.
  • 蘑菇堆肥: 蘑菇养殖产生的这种废物非常擅长改善您的高架床。
  • 牛粪: Once composted, this is a fantastic amendment and one which should be used regularly! All manures also act as food for your 泥’s microbiology.
  • 马粪: 如果它’井井有条,很老,这也是一种选择。
  • 家禽粪便: 同样,如果在蔬菜周围使用,则应首先进行堆肥处理,或者在淡季时可以直接在床上堆肥处理。
  • 蠕虫铸件: This incredible resource also improves the fertility of your 泥, although less than other manures do.
  • 叶片或叶片霉菌: A fantastic amendment for all gardens, leaves provide lots of valuable material for your 泥. It also makes an excellent top mulch.
  • 苜蓿粉/骨头粉/血液粉/海带粉/其他粉: 列出的每种膳食以及其他膳食都可以用作天然肥料。苜蓿富含氮,海带粉富含钾,等等。
  • 石: 这提供了一些微量元素,可以帮助植物生长。
  • 有机肥料: 如果你’不要添加自己的膳食混合物作为肥料,这可能是您的理想选择。如果可能,请选择一种包含微量营养素(如钙,硫和铁)的营养素。
  • 方铁 这种矿物质和其他粉状矿物质可以提供额外的微量营养素,从而启动您的花园。

其他添加剂

那里 are a few other additions that can help with specialized things. Products like 农用石灰 要么 碳酸钙 can help neutralize acidic 泥 pH levels, although be careful not to add too much. An excess of those materials can slow down the ability of a plant to absorb nutrition 来自 泥.

菌根 要么 有益细菌 are included in a number of bagged mixes and 要么 ganic fertilizers. These are fine to add to your raised beds, but you also have naturally-occurring mycorrhizae and bacteria in your 泥 already. Still, it can’偶尔会刺激人口增长。

建立良好的融合

梅尔's mix 泥 blend

如果你’赶紧使用袋装混合物作为入门方法是一个不错的选择。但这要取决于你的床多大’re trying to fill is. 如果你’re using one of the 6合1高镀锌钢床 来自 史诗园艺店, you may need as much as just over a cubic yard of 泥 (or 30 cubic feet), and that’要买很多袋子。所有这些袋子的价格可能会迅速上涨!多床花园可能需要您当地的景观供应公司的批量运输。

当我们’ve discussed tips on 填补高高的床 过去,’重要的是要知道你’重新填充以及。甚至袋装混合物也可以使用一些额外的肥力。因此,我建议如果您’选择袋装材料,除了使用优质的堆肥或堆肥外,还要进行其他处理’从那里开始。它不仅降低了价格,而且提高了整体质量。

如果你’从头开始重建,一个很好的基本配方将是您院子里30%的优质表土(经筛分以清除大块岩石),40%的堆肥材料,20%的曝气和排水改良剂以及10%的其他成分(肥料) ,额外的水分保持力,必要时使用pH中和剂,甚至10%的蠕虫铸件)。

您还可以建立通常称为的混合物“Mel’s Mix”,即堆肥,泥炭和ver石等份。许多人对此种混合物发誓,而且效果很好!在像Home Depot这样的大型盒子商店或当地的花园中心,泥炭藓通常很便宜。如有必要,可使用陈化和堆肥代替床中植物基堆肥。

确保将所有东西彻底混合在一起’在将您的混合物添加到床之前已完全合并。

维护土壤

填充高架床

一旦您’您的凸起的花园床已装满并在使用中,好像您’re done. However, 要么 ganic 泥 blends will gradually reduce in time as the material in the beds breaks down. Mineral components will stay, but compost and other 要么 ganic matter is supposed to decompose and vanish over time.

Adding more compost should be your first step to rejuvenate your mix. A good, thick layer of compost applied on the 泥 surface once a year will top off the raised beds and ensure that they continue to remain fertile. It also can reduce the amount of weeds that sprout. Really, compost is very helpful and should be applied regularly if you’重新做有机园艺!

除堆肥外,如果您想添加其他产品,还可以偶尔添加其他混合产品。尽量不要在床上添加过多的沙子,除非它可以’排水,并要避免粘土类土壤结块。但是定期施用ver堆肥或肥料堆肥总是好的。您甚至可以在床上堆满秋天的落叶,并让它们随着时间的推移逐渐分解。到春天,大多数叶子将自己变成堆肥!

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